Ataxia is the inability to make smooth, accurate, and coordinated movements, often due to disease of the cerebellum.
Bradykinesia is an extreme slowness and stiffness of movement, often due to parkinsonian syndromes.
Chorea and Choreoathetosis
Choreoathetosis is a syndrome of continuous random movements that usually occur at rest and may appear to be fidgety, dancing, or writhing.
Dystonia is a syndrome of abnormal muscle contractions that lead to twisting, jerking, spasms, or stiffening at rest or during attempts at movement.
Myoclonus is a condition of very rapid and brief shock-like jerks.
Psychogenic disorders span the full range of possible symptoms, including tremor, dystonia, ataxia, bradykinesia, and chorea.
Spasticity is an increase in muscle stiffness that worsens with rapid movement and may be associated with increased reflexes and weakness, often due to cerebral palsy.
Tics are repetitive, stereotyped, and sometimes complex involuntary movements or sounds that may appear similar to purposeful actions.
Tremor is a rhythmic back-and-forth shaking at rest or with movement.
Pediatric Diagnostic Methods
When evaluating a child with a possible neurologic movement disorder, there are many different diagnostic tests and varied approaches to using these tests. No single set of tests is appropriate for every child. Some children require extensive testing, while others entering evaluation may receive a diagnosis after a single clinic visit. Consultation with a child neurologist is essential in order to avoid unnecessary, expensive, or confusing testing. In some cases, consultation with other subspecialists may be needed.
Anatomy and Physiology